PTE Academic Practice Test Free – Writing (Summarize Written Text-32)

Summarize Written Text In One Sentence – Read the passage below and summarize it using 1 sentence (between 5 and 75 words). Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

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PTE Academic Practice – Summarize Written Text

  • Read and summarize written text in your words #1

Computer Programming

Consider the current situation: Like their counterparts in the United States, engineers and technicians in India have the capacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies. Indian programmers and high-tech engineers earn one-quarter of what their counterparts earn in the United States. Consequently, India is able to do both jobs at a lower dollar cost than the United States: India has an absolute advantage in both. In other words, it can produce a unit of programming for fewer dollars than the United States, and it can also produce a unit of technology innovation for fewer dollars. Does that mean that the United States will lose not only programming jobs but innovative technology jobs, too? Does that mean that our standard of living will fall if the United States and India engage in international trade?

David Ricardo would have answered no to both questions–as we do today. While India may have an absolute advantage in both activities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what India or the United States will produce. India has a comparative advantage in doing programming in part because such activity requires little physical capital. The flip side is that the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovation partly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country to undertake such long-run projects. The result is that Indian programmers will do more and more of what U.S. programmers have been doing in the past. In contrast, American firms will shift to more and more innovation. The United States will specialize in technology innovation; India will specialize in programming. The business managers in each country will opt to specialize in activities in which they have a comparative advantage. As in the past, the U.S. economy will continue to concentrate on what are called the “lost best” activities.

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What a country will engage in international trade depends on its comparative advantage so India will do more computer programming due to its comparative disadvantage of obtaining physical capital while the United State will engage in capital-intensive technology innovation, though India can do both at lower costs.

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  • Read and summarize written text in your words #2

Australian Indigenous Food

In its periodic quest for culinary identity, Australia automatically looks to its indigenous ingredients, the foods that are native to this country. ‘There can be little doubt that using an indigenous product must qualify a dish as Australian’, notes Stephanie Alexander. Similarly, and without qualification, Cherikoff states that ‘A uniquely Australian food culture can only be based upon foods indigenous to this country’, although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native foods as national symbols rely more upon their association with ‘nature’ and geographic origin than on common usage. Notwithstanding the lack of justification for the premise that national dishes are, of necessity, founded on ingredients native to the country—after all, Italy’s gastronomic identity is tied to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand’s to the non-indigenous chili—the reality is that Australians do not eat indigenous foods in significant quantities. The exceptions are fish, crustaceans, and shellfish from oceans, rivers and lakes, most of which are unarguably unique to this country. Despite valiant and well-intentioned efforts today at promoting and encouraging the consumption of native resources, bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible. Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity today than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized.

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69 Comments

    • Written discourse skills are represented in the structure of a written text, its internal coherence, logical development and the range of linguistic resources used to express meaning precisely.

  • Even though indigenous food consumption is encouraged among Australia, the citizens are not regularly involving it in their staple diet due to the unavailability of the ingredients except dishes like sea foods, and the imported and commonly-used foods like lamb are in common place.

  • Even though the Indian Engineers and technicians can perform both programming and innovation at lower cost than US counterparts, the comparative advantage of capital-rich economy in US will continue as their forte on innovative development, forces the Indians to focus on programming.

  • Hello Author,

    Please review,

    Indian programmers and engineers can do both programming and innovation at very low price than the counterparts earn in the United States and it is an advantage to India; however, United States has comparative advantage in doing innovation whereas India doing better in programming.

    Australians do not eat indigenous foods in significant quantities other than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized; however, nowadays they are promoting and encouraging the consumption of native foods.

    Thanks
    Sobhan Ch

    • – Weak adjective: low
      The intensifier ‘very’ modifies the weak adjective low. Consider replacing the phrase with a strong adjective in order to sharpen your writing.
      Instead, use ‘meager’

      – Missing article – a, the
      The noun phrase ‘comparative advantage’ seems to be missing a determiner before it. Consider adding an article.

  • Though, Indian engineers and technicians have the capacity to provide computer programming and innovative new technologies still researchers believe, American firms will continue to provide innovative technology as it is easier in the country to obtain capital for long-term projects and Indian firms will provide computer programming.

    Author please review

    • – Though,
      It appears that you have an unnecessary comma after the subordinating conjunction Though. Consider removing the comma.

      have the capacity to → can
      The phrase have the capacity to may be unnecessarily wordy. Consider replacing the phrase with a simpler alternative

  • In compare to India, US has got comparative advantages on technology innovation whereas India has comparative advantages on computer programming, so they will specialize on activities what they have comparative advantage.

    please review

    • – on → in
      It appears that the preposition ‘on’ may be incorrect or unnecessary in this context. Consider changing or removing it.

      – a comparative or the comparative
      The noun phrase ‘comparative advantage’ seems to be missing a determiner before it. Consider adding an article

  • Despite multiple attempts to promote indigenous food in Australia, Australians mostly prefer to consume imported and naturalized food, except various types of seafood such as fish and selfish, which can be found in lakes and rivers in Australia.

  • Although Indians are experts in both computer programming and innovative new technologies, the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovation because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country to undertake such long-run projects.

  • Australian’s culinary identity as indigenous food is very less relevant to their staple diet except sea food and thus native ingredients such as bush foods are also less harvested, however lamb and passion fruit become national identity of Australia, are now naturalized.

    Author review please

  • Though Indian engineers have a capacity to execute both computer programming units and innovative technologies at much lower cost, but Americans still have a competitive edge in technology innovation because of easy access to financial gains for long-run projects in the country.

    Author review please
    Thankyou

  • Despite tremendous efforts at encouraging and promoting the consumption of native resources, bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities, and also Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity nowadays than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized.

  • Although indeginous ingredients and bush foods are proposed as national symbols, they are not a standard Australian diet compared to initial imported such as lamps or passionfruits which are now naturalised except fish, crustaceans and shellfish.

  • Despite promoting and encouraging the consumption of native food, indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity except seafood because imported food is more popular; therefore, native ingredient are less harvested.

  • Although indispensable engineers and technicians in India have the capacity of computer programming and innovation and less cost compare to the USA engineers still capital to run a business is easy to get in the USA, therefore according to David Ricardo USA will never lose programing and innovating jobs.

  • India has a capacity in executing both jobs computer programming and technology innovation at a low cost, but American still has a competitive edge in technology innovation because of easy payment process to operate the long-run projects in the country.

  • The association of Australian Indigenous food with national diets is impossible because, despite tremendous effort to promote the consumption of aboriginal food, Australian people do not use local foods regularly as these foods are insufficient and hard to procure compared to imported ones.

  • Australian food culture consists of indeginous ingredients which depend on their association with nature and geographic origin like lamb, passion fruit,fish,crustaceans consequently the reality is that Australians eat non indegionus foods.

  • Engineers and technicians in India have the capability to do both computer programming and innovative technologies which requires less capital amount and earn one quarter of counterparts in the US and it is easy to get capital amount for the long projects in the US.

  • Even though sea foods are undoubtedly special for Australians, those are not indigenous ingredients dishes like other countries have their own and efforts made to look for national symbol like lamb and passionfruit.

  • United states is involved in innovation work then programming as they find investors easily, even though Indians are good in both job but they lag in getting initial finance for research.

  • Keeping current scenario in view, Indian programmers and highly intelligent engineers provide effective and efficient work to the US that too at a lower rate which indicates that questioned US innovative and programming job but Ricardo David denied saying the US will continually update its technology to be first in the innovative market from which all will learn.

  • Australia’s originated ingredient is seafood because of its climatic and geographic conditions; however, its culinary identity is a concoction from different cultures, and the countries such as Australia, Italy, and Thailand consume non-indigenous ingredients like bush foods, tomato, and chili’s respectively.
    (what–about food)(topic+support)(second opinion about topic+few examples)

  • The united states maintains its currency rate despite of doing the international trade because the Indian counterparts are cheaper to invest capital; however, both the countries share there activities by producing different unit of technology and programming respectively.

    (END OF 1ST PARA AND START OF 2ND PARA discussing about economy, so my main topic is about currency, (OPINION+support+why/how+poinion 2 why/how)

  • Although cost of producing innovative technologies and programming techniques in India is low comparative to USA,India will continue to dominate in less capital intensive programming arena and USA will excel in creating new cutting edge technologies due to easy access to required finances.
    It is true that a country’s culinary identity is due to its popular indigenous food but Australia and few other countries are exception to it because neither the native food is produced in sufficient quantities to make it a staple diet nor is easily accessible at the same time.

  • United State will always provide an innovative technology and India will always be doing the legacy technology work ,because of the easy availability of investor in US for the project in comparison to India.

  • United States will continue engaging in technological innovations while India keep programming as the former require physical capital for such long time projects and the later does not.

  • 1. Although India has a comparative advantage on programming and technology innovation than the United States, it does not mean that India will take up all the technological jobs nor the living standard of the United States will lower because innovation is much easier in the US due to the easier financial accessibility.
    2. Even though national dishes should be based on indigenous ingredients, Australian national symbol of lamb and passionfruit are, however, both imported mainly due to the limited availability of the bush foods.

  • India has got both the programmers as well as high-tech engineers which can produce programming and innovative technologies at low cost , while United States has more advantage of producing technology of innovation as they have easily available finances for long period of time.

  • Due to low cost of labour and high tech engineering skills Indians are becoming more demanding in U S companies, this is creating a threat that more U S people will loose job however this is not true since U S has better infrastructure and investing capabilities which offers more jobs and ultimately boosts US economy.

  • Australian culinary Identity can be made by non Indigenous foods as most of Australians prefer non Indigenous foods exceptions are fish, crustaceans, and shellfish from oceans.

  • A debating question has been put in front of David Ricardo , Why can’t India do both computer programming and Technology Innovation?His answer to the question is ,the fact is irrelevant comparing both nations.India specialize in computer programming as it requires less capital whereas US can specialize in Technology Innovation as it easy to obtain capital.

  • Though Indian technicians and engineers are well versed in both computer programming and innovative new technology, nevertheless, they are still paid less compared to their US counterparts and as US has more capital to invest in technology, it will still dominate technology sector and India, due to insufficient capital, could only advance in computer programming rather than innovative technology, even though it has requisite skill.
    Please reply if the summary is correct.
    Thanks

    • Ans 2.
      Australia’s quest to represent its food culture as one which includes greater proportion of its indigenous food ingredients, rests on flimsy ground as majority of Australians do not use native ingredients as important component of their diet and as of now, there is insufficient cultivation of indigenous ingredients, to be used as standard component in their diets.

  • Despite many attempts made to propose native food as national symbols and encouraging people for its consumption, whereas people in Australia eat many foods which were imported earlier and now naturalized.

    • Australia needs to raise the popularity of indigenous ingredient on their food, however, it seems quite difficult due to these foods is not meeting sufficient standard components of Australian diet and less relevant to their identity.

  • Indian engineers and technicians have a capacity of both programming and innovation, but could only benefit India in programming side as it requires less capital, whereas new innovation ideas can only be implemented in the US as it requires large capital and long-run projects.

  • Indigenous food is a culinary identity and a national symbol of an Australian food culture, which is generally consumed and harvested in a very less quantity as compared to lamb and passionfruit, even after promoting and encouraging the utilisation of native resource like bush.

  • The US economy may not be impacted by the fact that India holds an edge of delivering both technology and innovation at lesser cost as it would continue to concentrate in the area of innovation since it holds a significant edge in obtaining financial aid for such activities.

  • Indian engineers and technicians have a capacity of both programming and innovation, but could only benefit India in programming side as it requires less capital, whereas new innovation ideas can only be implemented in the US as it requires large capital and long-run projects.

  • Despite numerous set of conditions for food dishes to satisfy as Australian indigenous produce, people do not even consume these rather they eat food which were imported initially but now naturalized.

  • Indian Engineer’s ability to innovate and program at lower cost neither affects employment in United States nor in India rather balance it in terms of more programming in India and innovations in US bearing the capital as constrain in India.

  • India and the United States together can not only produce programming units but innovative technologies also as India has an advantage in doing programming because such activity requires little physical capital which India has and the United States has an advantage in technology innovation because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country to undertake long-run projects.

    The ingredients for the national dishes does not necessarily comprise of indigenous foods of the nation instead may comprise of the non-indigenous food as well because many times indigenous foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for the people to be a part of their diets.

  • Australia in its quest for an indigenous culinary identity has tried to promote consumption of native resources to qualify a dish as Australian but with the exception of seafood which beyond doubt is unique to it, Australians do not eat indigenous food in good quantities, in spite of considerable effort at promoting consumption of native resources, bush foods are not produced in sufficient quantity

  • Both the countries are specialize in their own domains India can perform the programming job, which do not required much capital and on the other hand
    United states is specialize in technical innovation, which can easily operated by business with strong economy.

  • Indian engineers and technicians are capable of providing both computer programming and innovative new technologies at a relatively lower compared to United states, since it relatively easy to get capital in the United states for long run technology innovation projects than India, so Indian programmers will be redoing what U.S. programmers have done in the past and thus USA will specialize in technology innovations while India will specialize in programming.

  • Australian local food except few items are not consumed much, hence it is not national identity, also even after encouraging to consume more of local resources, not much is done to harvest or produce enough of them.

  • India and US engagement in International trade will have advantage to both the countries in regards to computer programming and innovative technologies because US has sufficient amount of capital which is required for technology innovation where as India will have to invest less capital in for better
    programming but there is a fear that US will fall back.

  • India can compete the United States in both programming and innovation technology however the United States has the capital to invest in long term projects in innovation technology while India can continue with good programming.

  • India has the capacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies at lower dollar rates than United States and India has a comparative advantage in doing programming jobs whereas on the flip side United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovation but the business managers in each country will opt to specialize in activities in which they have a comparative advantage.

  • #1
    Despite India has the advantage in doing computer programming for lower costs than the United States, the United States has the capital to produce more innovative technologies which focus on “lost best” activities.

  • Australia food identity have become a combination of different culture, however Australian citizen did not eat significant quantities of indigenous gradients, except seafood.

  • As in Australia, indigenius food is described as food that in native to Australia but according to Craw, nature and geographic origion plays an important role than how commonly than food is being consumed and indigenous foods are not that very important in Australia.

  • Indian engineers and technicians can do both programing and inovations at a cheaper price than their USA counterpares, but because USA has capital it can offord inovation technology and India can ony conerntrate on computor programing because it cheap.

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