Summarize Written Text In One Sentence – Read the passage below and summarize it using 1 sentence (between 5 and 75 words). Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.
PTE Academic Writing – Summarize Written Text Practice Sample #18
PTE Academic Writing – Summarize Written Text Practice Sample #19
PTE Academic Writing – Summarize Written Text Practice Sample #20
PTE Academic Practice – Summarize Written Text
- Read and summarize written text in your words #1
The Earth’s climate has changed. After nearly two centuries of fossil fuel-burning, concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have reached 400 parts per million, especially boosted by the seemingly ever-accelerating amount of combustion in the last few decades according to the World Meteorological Organization. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 0.04 percent may not seem like much but it is enough to have already raised average global temperatures by a full degree Celsius, according to the U.K.’s Met Office, with more warming on the way as the greenhouse gas lingers invisibly in the atmosphere, trapping heat, or mixing into the ocean, rendering its waters more acidic.
In fact, the world has not seen CO2 concentrations this high in at least hundreds of thousands of years. Roughly 35 billion metric tons of CO2 are spewed into the atmosphere annually—and rising. The waters of the global ocean have become 30 percent more acidic in the last few decades and the world has not been this warm in thousands of years. This year is likely to be the hottest one since record keeping began, thanks to an El Nino weather pattern that’s taking place in addition to global warming. The top 10 warmest years have all occurred since 1998, which was the year of the last major El Nino.
Worse, farming, forest-clearing, and other activities have contributed to emissions of other greenhouse gasses, such as methane and nitrous oxide, the latter more commonly known as laughing gas, which is no laughing matter in the atmosphere.
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- Read and summarize written text in your words #2
About 120,000 types of protein molecule have yielded up their structures to science. That sounds a lot, but it isn’t. The techniques, such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which are used to elucidate such structures do not work on all proteins. Some types are hard to produce or purify in the volumes required. Others do not seem to crystallize at all—a prerequisite for probing them with X-rays. As a consequence, those structures that have been determined include representatives of less than a third of the 16,000 known protein families. Researchers can build reasonable computer models for around another third because the structures of these resemble ones already known. For the remainder, however, there is nothing to go on.
In addition to this lack of information about protein families, there is a lack of information about those from the species of most interest to researchers: Homo sapiens. Only a quarter of known protein structures are human. A majority of the rest come from bacteria. This paucity is a problem, for in proteins form and function are intimately related. A protein is a chain of smaller molecules, called amino acids, that is often hundreds or thousands of links long. By a process not well understood, this chain folds up, after it has been made, into a specific and complex three-dimensional shape. That shape determines what the protein does: acting as a channel, say, to admit a chemical into a cell; or as an enzyme to accelerate a chemical reaction; or as a receptor, to receive chemical signals and pass them on to a cell’s molecular machinery.
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A protein is a chain of smaller molecules, called amino acids, which is also into a specific and complex three-dimensional shape, whereas techniques such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR), which are used to elucidate the structures but still researchers can build another third to resemble these structure
In recent days due to increment in proportion of green house gases resultant through deforestation and limitless use of fossil fuel, the Earth temperature has been altered dramatically, which results in the warmer surrounding temperature and acidic ocean water.
Increase in Atmospheric Carbon dioxide concentration is attributed to factors such as Worst farming, forest-clearing, and other activities causing change in earth’s climate , turning ocean water more acidic and rise in earth’s temperature.
Author – please reply
– a change or the change
The noun phrase change seems to be missing a determiner before it. Consider adding an article.
According to World Meterological Organisation due to fossile fuel burning and high amount of greehouse gases such as CO2, Methan and Nitro oxide in autmospghere, earthis’s climate has changed drastically and ocean’s water become 30 percent more acidic in last few decades and it seems that this year would be hottest among last few hot years.
Although about 12,000 types of protein molecule structure is known by X-ray crystallography and NMR technique still many protein structures, especially Homo sapiens are not yet discovered, additionally, the protein chain shape which is called as amino acid helps to understand the protein mechanism.
Author please review:
Although about 12,000 types of protein molecule structure is known mostly bacteria molecule by X-ray crystallography and NMR technique still only quarters of human protein structures are known, additionally, protein chain shape which is called as amino acid helps to understand protein mechanism.
The Earth’s climate, which has changed due to deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases and as a result a degree Celsius temperature has increased, CO2 concentration has reached to 400 parts per million and water has become more acidic.
Due to the increase of various green house gases such as CO2, Methane and Nitorus Oxide due to fossil fuel combustion along with large scale farming and forest clearing, earths climate has changed considerably, with global temperature increasing, ocean water becoming more acidic.
The Earth climate changes have augmented temperature and water has become more acidic, which caused by the carbon dioxide gas emission, deforestation, other greenhouse gases like methane and nitrous oxide.
Temperature of Earth is drastically increasing due to emission of carbon-dioxide,green house gases and various other factors ,which results in uplifting of ocean’s water level causing global warming.
The concentration of co2 and fossil fuel burning caused global warming, greenhouse gas invisibly in the atmosphere, trapping heat, contamination into ocean makes water more acidic reached to highest 35 billion metric tonnes co2 spread into the atmosphere which has high impacted farming,forest-cleaning.
The drastic change in earth’s climate in recent years is boosted by combustion and fossil fuel burning because of which concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have crossed the danger mark, also, forest clearing and other activities have contributed to emissions of greenhouse gasses, such as methane.
Serious and danger sign for human is on the way which is predicted by El Nino which says the global temperature is rising since last decade due to continuous and prolific use of fossil fuel which had affected the atmosphere of the earth adversely in many ways.
A protein – chain of smaller molecules – called amino acid – are of the various shape which performs various functions in the body, are of 120000 types; from which only 16000 are of known families from which only third part can be resembled by scientists.
Molecules produce and purify the structure in required volume yet X-ray crystallography don’t work on all proteins; however, the process cycle of protein has determine the various function with different shapes because its structure had come from humans and bacteria.
(Topic –protein and its functions (opinion+supporting sentence, opinion 2+why/how)
EI nano pattern aides to record the Earth’s climatic changes because raise in Earth’s temperature is the cause for acidic effect; however, due to accelerating amount of combustion and raise in concentration of co2 leads to global warming.
(TOPIC– GLOBAL WARMING,EFFECTS ( SO, I MADE SUBJECT AS RECORDER+ OBJECT AS CAUSES.))
High emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide are due to activities such as fossil fuel burning, forest clearing, etc. resulting in climatic changes on earth and acidic effects on the ocean.
High concentration of CO2 in atmosphere to alarming levels is due to excessive fossil fuel burning during last century, which has resulted in increased global temperatures and changed acidity of ocean water, but current human activities are making situation even worse.
Not enough is known about many protein structures, which reveal critical information about their specific functioning, due to limitations of measuring techniques and even less information is available about the human protein structures.
Where is author’s answer ?
There are so many answers given, why you need author’s answer. You write down your summary, I will review it.
Climate change and pollution in natural resources like air and water has been noticed, due to green house gas that lingers invisibly in the atmosphere, trapping heat, making water more acidic; whereas, worse farming, forest-clearing and other activities have contributed for rise of greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide, which is known as the laughing gas, other than Carbon dioxide.
Though 120000 types of protein molecule have yielded up their structures to science, but they are not enough because the techniques such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance used to reveal the structure do not work on all the proteins.
Fossil fuel burning, concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, atmospheric co2 concentrations of 0.04 percent, increase in combustion in the last few decades and invisible greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has let to global warming.
Defective human activities these days is leading to climate change making the earth hotter each day because of which global warming and El Nino weather pattern are emerging.
1. Within a few decades, emission of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide have increased the world’s average temperature and acidity level of oceans at a record level for hundreds of thousands of years and El Nino weather patterns has contributed to result in 10 consecutive hottest years since 1998.
2. Proteins are a chain of amino acids and we have limited knowledge about the structure of it which makes us difficult to determine the function of a protein in human because the structure and the function of a protein are closely related.
A protein is a chain of smaller molecules, called amino acids, that is often hundreds or thousands of links long and about 120,000 types of protein molecule have yielded up their structures to science in which ,only a quarter of known protein structures are human, majority of the rest come from bacteria.
This year is likely to be the hottest one said by El Nino weather pattern, as roughly 35 billion metric tons of CO2 are spewed into the atmosphere annually and the waters of the global ocean have become 30 percent more acidic in the last few decades and the world has not been this warm in thousands of years.
A protein is a chain of smaller molecules known as amino acids, that is often hundreds or thousands of links long and only a quarter of known protein structures are human, rest are come from bacteria and hence it’s hard to understand it’ structure for scientist despite having techniques like X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance.
Even though scientist had discovered lots of complex protein molecule structures using different technologies, yet there are many more to identify, because of protein’s complex molecular structure it become a challenge for scientist to discover them easily.
Especially in last few decades due to enormous usage of coal as a fuel, deforestation for farming released excessive amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases into earth’s atmosphere, which had a devastating impact on earth’s ecological system such as global warming, acidic rain and EL Nino.
Emissions of CO2 in to the atmosphere by huge amount of combustion in the last few decades is not only warming up the Earth’s atmosphere to its highest, but also resulting in the raise of acidity of the Ocean waters and this global warming is also summed up by other green house gases released because of worse farming, forest clearing etc.
According to study, only a small portion of protein structure is understood that shows a lack of information in understanding protein molecules, which is not even recognised by modern methods like X-ray and NMR.
The burning of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, affecting the earth’s global temperature and turning ocean water more acidic, which is reported by EI Nino weather pattern.
Existing technologies limited to observe structures of only 3rd of the 16,000 protein families and 4th of what resided in homo sapiens which yet require definition on its formation however serves various functions in cells.
Combustion of fossil fuels have caused increased CO2 proportions and farming and forest cleaning activities have led to release of the other green house gases in the atmosphere, thus changing the climate and making this year as the hottest year till the date.
The higher concentration of CO2 in atmosphere is the reason for augmented acidity of global ocean water and earth’s temperature rise resulting in El Nino weather pattern for past few years.
Studies have been conducted on around 120000 protein structures to understand their functions and how these functions relate to their structures.
Earth’s climate caused by numerous substances that change and increases world’s temperatures and create more acidic waters, moreover human’s activities have contributed to this emission issue by creating “laughing gas” which deteriorates the environment.
Climate change is the biggest issue recent days up to the studies last two decades increasing co2 emission which cause this problem and most warmest years are within the recent decades.
The increase in CO2 level since 1998 is increasing the earth’s temperature and acidifying water. Also emission of other greenhouse gasses such as methane and nitrogen oxide as a result of deforestation and wrong techniques used for farming contribute to global warming.
The increase in CO2 level since 1998 is increasing the earth’s temperature and acidifying water. Also emission of other greenhouse gasses such as methane and nitrogen oxide, as a result of deforestation and wrong techniques used for farming, contribute to global warming.
A protein as an enzyme to accelerate a chemical reaction to receive chemical signals and pass them on to a cell’s molecular machine but lack of information about protein and known protein structures are human then majority from bacteria.
1. The Earth’s climate has been changed due to fossil fuel-burning, concentrations of carbon dioxide which both have increased global temperatures that cause more acidic level in water by 30 percent in the last few decades and hottest weather was recorded in the last years since 1998.
1. Comparing the records from past few decades, consuming fossil fuel, farming, forest-clearing, and other activities has made a dramatic raise of average global temperature due to the raise in concentration of CO2 and emissions of other greenhouse gasses – as a result ocean water too has become 30 percent more acidic and warm.
2. Protein is s chain of amino acid’s molecule with hundreds or thousands of links long and act as a enzyme, receptor or act as a channel to admit chemical into cell; researchers are continuously into exploring the information about unidentified protein families, as less than one third of 16000 known protein families has been determined so far.
The Earth’s climate has been changed due to fossil fuel-burning and generated greenhouse gases, which both have increased the average global temperature that caused more acidity in the oceans and the hottest weather record was in the last 10 years since 1998.
Global issues like global warming, changing weather pattern and ocean’s water turning more acidic are caused due to the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere and others factors like using worse farming technique and deforestation.
There are very few types of proteins whose structures are known to the researchers because it is difficult to determine the structure of the remaining types of proteins as they either need to be crystallised or hard to be produced or purified in the volumes.
Scientists possess limited knowledge of protein molecules called as amino acids as well major source of protein structures namely Bacteria, due to technological limitations as well as lack of cognizance about the protein structure formulation determining its function.
CO2 emission has reached all time high with concentration of 0.04 as per World Meteorological Organization causing steep rise in average global temperatures, in addition to causing water contamination with Acid by at least 30%, with the current year expected to be the hottest due to factors like deforestation.
There are many types of proteins whose structure is still undetermined as they cannot crystallize which a pre-requisite for probing them, the structure of the protein determines what chain it will evolve into -– will it act as an enzyme to accelerate chemical reaction or a receptor to receive chemical signals
As a result of fossil fuel burning, forest clearing and other activities emission of Carbon Dioxide and other greenhouse gases are adversely impacting the earth’s climate which has changed considerably as a consequences which this year is expected to be the hottest one.
After nearly two centuries of fossil fuel-burning, concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have reached 400 parts per million, especially boosted by the seemingly ever-accelerating amount of combustion in the last few decades according to the World Meteorological Organization, and the waters of the global ocean have become 30 percent more acidic in the last few decades and the world has not been this warm in thousands of years.
The techniques, such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which are used to elucidate such structures do not work on all proteins, and A protein is a chain of smaller molecules, called amino acids, that is often hundreds or thousands of links long.
Overwhelming carbon dioxide emissions in recent times has negatively impacted global warming in several ways; even leading to increased acidity in water from the oceans and with no signs of controlling activities that encourage such developments, the atmosphere will take a toll.
There has been numerous modes and varying attempts to extract information related to protein structures and their families with little to no success in achieving completion resulting in researcher’s being unable to discern the works of the majority of proteins related specifically to humans.
Activities like worse farming, deforestartion and fossil fuel burning resulted in greenhouse gases which lead to increase in CO2 concentration making Earth hotter more than ever before and turned oceanic water acidic.
With increased combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and agriculture, emission of green house gases has increases remarkably, resulting in change in the climate of Earth by raising the global temperature and increasing the acidity of sea water.
Although structures of 120,000 types of proteins have been confirmed yet all the complex structures can not be studied by X-ray Crystallography or NMR, which is essential because the shape of a protein depicts whether it works as an enzyme or as a receptor.
The Earth’s climate has changed due to increased carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere, raise in acidic level in ocean waters and greenhouse gas emissions.
There is lack of information about protein families and their process about how the amino acids fold up into a specific and complex three-dimensional shape which determines its functionality such as acting as a channel; or as an enzyme to accelerate a chemical reaction; or as a receptor, to receive and pass chemical signals on to a cell’s molecular machinery.