PTE Real Exam – Summarize Written Text 51

PTE Writing Summarize Written Text (SWT) – Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence (between 5 and 75 words). Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

PTE Writing – Summarize Written Text

1. Read and summarize written text in your words.

Electric Eels

The first time I read Von Humboldt’s tale, I thought it was completely bizarre, Catania says. Why would the eels attack the horses instead of swimming away? But then he observed the same behaviour by accident as he transferred the eels in his lab from one tank to another using a metal-rimmed net. Instead of swimming away, larger eels attacked the net by leaping out of the water.

Catania tracked the strength of the eels electric shock by attaching a voltmeter to an aluminium plate, or conductive metal strips to predator objects such as a crocodile head replica. The zap a submerged eel distributes through the water is relatively weak when it reaches the target. But when an eel touches it with its electricity-generating chin, the current travels directly to the target and has to travel through its body before it gets back to the water, Catania reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

This allows the eels to deliver shocks with a maximum amount of power to partially submerged land animals that invade their territory, Catania explains. It also allows them to electrify a much larger portion of the invader’s body. Catania found the eels leapt to attack, rather than receded, more often when the water in the aquarium was lower. He argues the attack lets electric eels better defend themselves during the Amazon dry season. When they’re cornered in small pools, and make easy prey.

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 Eels attacks by touching its electricity generating chin which delivers shock directly through the body of the invader resulting in electrifying larger portion and partially submerged land animals receive the maximum amount of shock. 

2. Read and summarize written text in your words.

Dinosaur Extinct

What killed off the dinosaurs? The end of the Cretaceous Period saw one of the most dramatic mass extinctions the Earth has ever seen. First of all, let us learn some basic information about “nurse shark”. The fossil record shows that throughout their 160-million-year existence, dinosaurs took on a huge variety of forms as the environment changed and new species evolved that was suited to these new conditions. Others that failed to adopt went extinct. But then 66 million years ago, over a relatively short time, dinosaurs disappeared completely (except for birds). Many other animals also died out, including pterosaurs, large marine reptiles, and other sea creatures such as ammonites.

Although the number of dinosaur species was already declining, this suggests a sudden catastrophic event sealed their fate, causing unfavourable changes to the environment more quickly than dinosaurs and other creatures could adapt.

The exact nature of this catastrophic event is still open to scientific debate. The catastrophe could have been an asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions or the effect of both, together with more gradual changes in the Earth’s climate over millions of years. Whatever the causes, the huge extinction that ended the age of the dinosaur left gaps in the ecosystem that were subsequently filled by mammals and birds, allowing them to evolve rapidly.

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The quick unfavourable changes that took place in the environment lead to the extinction of dinosaurs which resulted in the rapid evolution of mammals and birds to fill the gap created in the ecosystem. 

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