PTE Writing – Summarize Written Text Practice Sample 41

Summarize Written Text – Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence (between 5 and 75 words). Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

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PTE Writing – Summarize Written Text

1. Read and summarize written text in your words.

Asking Questions

All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has bequeathed them through natural selection. They are not capable of striving towards truth; they simply absorb information and behave in ways useful for their survival. The kinds of knowledge they require of the world have been largely pre-selected by evolution. No animal is capable of asking questions or generating problems that are irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily-designed needs. When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies south, it doesn’t wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south.

Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally-defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to establish human-created goals.

Some contemporary thinkers believe that there are indeed certain questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that “Our minds evolved by natural selection to solve problems that were life-and-death matters to our ancestors, not to commune with correctness or to answer any question we are capable of asking. We cannot hold ten thousand words in our short-term memory. We cannot see the ultra-violet light. We cannot mentally rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot solve conundrums like free will and sentience.”

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Unlike animals that could only absorb information pre-selected by nature, humans can ask themselves questions which are irrelevant to naturally-defined needs and goals and some people believe that humans are also incapable of answering some questions due to the evolved nature.

2. Read and summarize written text in your words.

Charles Darwin first expounded the idea of natural selection in his 1859 book, Origin of Species. Before Darwin, the idea that evolution had taken place was becoming widely accepted in the scientific establishment. In Origin of Species, he demonstrated two things; that natural selection provided the mechanism needed to drive evolution and that sufficient time had passed for natural selection to have worked. This famous text, along with Darwin’s 1871 work The Descent of Man, placed human beings firmly in the animal kingdom for the first time and permanently altered our vision of ourselves.

Darwin’s experience of animal husbandry (in particular breeding pigeons) and selective plant breeding informed his idea of natural selection. He noted that bloodlines could be changed fairly quickly through selective breeding and argued that a similar process could take place in nature whereby the attributes of individuals who were more successful at reproducing than others would spread through the population over time. Organisms that were better suited to a particular environment in any generation would have an advantage that would ensure that the next generation contained a high percentage of their offspring.

Natural selection, then, is the filter which allows only those organisms with the best traits to produce offspring successfully. Although chance always plays a role in deciding the fate of an individual organism, over a number of generations advantages conferred by particular traits make it more likely that organisms who have those traits survive for long enough to reproduce. Over time this leads to organisms which are better adapted to the environment they live in than their predecessors were.

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56 Comments

  • Author, please advice.

    Unlike humans, animals cannot think or act beyond their capacity, rather they do what is all required for their survival whereas humans’ evolving nature force them to go beyond their naturally-defined goals, asking questions on certain behaviour which are sometimes irrelevant or they themselves cannot answer.

    Charles Darwin inferred from his experiences in animal and plant breeding that organisms who were better accustomed with an environment and successful in reproducing, could have better chance to have their children and hence their bloodline can expand rapidly in the environment since their offsprings posses same characteristics of reproducing in that particular environment as their ancestors did.

  • Charles Darwin has enlightened the world with the concept of natural selection, the driving force of evolution, and according to him, selective breeding is the key to natural selection, and the chances of a particular trait to reproduce the best offspring results from successfully adapting to the surroundings than its counterparts.

  • Even though, humans are capable of going way beyond in terms of self-defined goals and question-making when compared with non-human animals, a few contemporary thinkers put forward the belief that even human beings have conquered the life threatening situations of predecessors and naturally restricted to perform actions beyond their abilities.

  • In contrast to the animals, human beings are capable of asking questions even though some of the questions may not be relevant or in line with the naturally defined goals, while for some other questions, human beings may not have an answer.

  • Hello Author,

    All non-human animals are not capable of thinking in doing the things in a better way and they can’t question like humans, however, some argue that even humans can’t answer some questions because of their evolved nature.

    Charles Darwin demonstrated two things about natural selection process in his book “Origin of Species” that this process provided the mechanism needed to drive evolution and that sufficient time had passed, and some of his ideas are selective plan breeding and bloodlines are helpful for the next generation; however, chance always plays a role in deciding the fate of an individual organism.

    Please validate

    Thanks
    Sobhan Ch

    • , and

      It appears that you are missing a comma before the coordinating conjunction and in a compound sentence. Consider adding a comma.

      , however → ; however
      This sentence appears to consist of two independent clauses. Consider using a semicolon before however.

  • Humans are the only known species in the evolutionary chain that are capable of asking questions for performing required actions, where as all other animals act on survival instincts irrespective of knowing the truth or solving a problem.

    Author: Please review and comment.
    Cheers.

  • All human has the ability to communicate their problems and ask different types of question, they have naturally defined goals that human created like finding food for themselve , place where they live and with their partners comparitively those of non-human like animals, they donot ask question, they simply absord the pieces of information and behave in such ways which are helpful for their survival.

    • human created → human-created

      It appears that human created is missing a hyphen. Consider adding the hyphen(s)

      comparitively → comparatively

      The word comparitively is written wrongly

      themselve → themselves

      The word themselve is written wrongly.

  • Author please review:

    Unlike animals, who are incapable of striving towards truth and just absorb information, humans do posses a quality of asking irrelevant questions to themselves by going beyond their naturally-defined goals which however is limited to certain extent.

  • To the author, there is a mistake in the sentence number 7 in paragraph number 1
    It would be better to fix it. Because it seems that some of the text was replaced by another sentence that has no relevance to the original context.

  • @author = please check

    Although humans are capable to think beyond the basic goals required to survive, but still some of the goals are
    there that humans can’t set because of their evolved nature, just like non-human animals can’t think beyond their surviving
    goals.

    • to think → of thinking

      It appears that you have used the single-word verb or the verb phrase think with a word that is usually followed by a prepositional phrase. Consider replacing to with a preposition and changing the verb(s) into gerund(s) (-ing form).

  • @Author please review

    Humans unlike animals have an ability of asking a number of questions to others and to themselves which can be of relevance or non relevance however, some people like Steven Pinker think that some questions are non answerable by humans.

    The idea of natural selection was first introduced by Charles Darwin in his book Origin of Species where he mentioned, natural selection is about selecting the best traits and allow those organisms to produce to get the offspring which good characteristics.

    • of asking → to ask

      It appears that you have used the preposition of before the verb asking in this sentence. Consider using the to-infinitive form of the verb

      a number of → some or many
      The phrase ‘a number of’ may be wordy. Consider changing the wording.

      Passive voice

      Charles Darwin first introduced the idea of natural selection
      This sentence appears to be written in the passive voice. Consider writing in the active voice.

      non answerable → non-answerable

      It appears that non answerable is missing a hyphen. Consider adding the hyphen(s).

  • 1. Due to natural selection and evolution, animals can not to ask questions, which are not related to their immediate survival and only can absorb information, while people can ask various questions, which go far beyond their basic needs such as food, shelter and relationships; however, in spite of all this, there are still some things that people are not able to do, for instance, to see the ultra-fiolet light.

    2. The process of natural selection, which has been explained in the book “Origin of Species” by Darvin, fully altered our understanding of evolution, because he stated that the natural selection is the process which drives our evolution and allows organism with the best traits to adapt better to the environment and be more sustainable and reproduce.

    OR

    The idea of natural selection, described by Darvin in his book “Origin of species”, fully altered our understanding of ourselves, and stated that natural selection is the process which allows more stronger species with better traits to adapt to the environment and to reproduce more offspring.

  • Hello Author,

    Unlike animals which are not capable of striving towards truth, but can absorb information that is needed for their survival; however, humans can ask questions by going beyond the naturally -defined goals in finding food, shelter or mate but contemporary thinkers sees that our evolved nature is not predictable.

    Please comment.

    • sees → see

      The singular verb sees does not appear to agree with the plural subject thinkers. Consider changing the verb form for subject-verb agreement.

  • Describing bout the abilities of humans and animals. animals cannot communicate and ask questions like humans. they just grasp knowledge from the nature and survive. where as humans can communicate, solve problems based on their knowledge. but still human cannot do few things like rotating objects in 4d or keep more than 100 words in short term memory.

  • Non-human Animals cannot figure out the truth and ask questions while humans can ask even irrelevant questions in addition to the ones related to searching food, shelter or a mate, however, they too are inefficient of solving complex riddles.

    Charles Darwin has explained the phenomenon like Natural Selection and Survival of the Best in his theory book which says that the organisms with the best traits survive and reproduce only if they exist for a good period of time to adapt to the environment.

    • Repetitive word: questions

      The word questions appears repeatedly in this text. Consider using a synonym in its place.Instead use words like issues, items & problems.

      , however → ; however
      This sentence appears to consist of two independent clauses. Consider using a semicolon or period before however.

      period of time → period

      It appears that period of time is a tautology. Consider changing it.

  • Unlike animals, who absorb and behave accordingly to fit into natural selection, it is humans who have the ability to question and think beyond evolved goals, however, it is limited to certain extent.

    • The phrase ‘have the ability to’ may be unnecessarily wordy. Consider replacing the phrase with a simpler alternative. (You can use ‘can’)

      Consider replacing ‘who’ with ‘which’

  • The significant difference between non-human beings and human beings is asking questions, human asks questions and strive towards the answers which is not the case in non human beings because of this advantage man was able to find solutions to many problems most of these problems were life and death problems to our ancestors.

    • is → are

      The singular verb is does not appear to agree with the plural subject the answers. Consider changing the verb form for subject-verb agreement.

      non human → non-human
      It appears that non human is missing a hyphen. Consider adding the hyphen(s).

      Repetitive word: problems

      The word problems appears repeatedly in this text. Consider using a synonym in its place.

      issues

      strive → strives

      The plural verb strive does not appear to agree with the singular subject human. Consider changing the verb form for subject-verb agreement.

  • All non-human animals are absorbed information and behave in ways useful for their survival which are pre-selected by evolution and not capable for generating issues in immediate situation while human capable to manage their life circumstances although there is questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved nature like ability of memorizing ten thousand words in short time or seeing ultra-violet light that we cannot manage them.

    please, check my answer and put a score on it.

  • Animals unlike humans are not capable of asking questions and thinking more than their immediate need, but human have the capacity to think beyond its immediate need, although some thinkers believe that human is also incapable to answer some certain questions due to their evolved nature like life-and-death and so on.

    Please check my answer and give me a score.

    • , unlike humans,

      It appears that you are missing a comma or two with the interrupter unlike humans. Consider adding the comma(s).

      have → has

      The plural verb have does not appear to agree with the singular subject human. Consider changing the verb form for subject-verb agreement

      4 out of 5

  • The idea of natural selection by Darwin exemplified through animal husbandry and selective plant breeding proved the fact that organisms with the best traits produced better offspring which better adapts to the environment and survival

    Author appreciate if you could comment on the same

    • , and

      It appears that you are missing a comma before the coordinating conjunction and in a compound sentence. Consider adding a comma.

      survival.

      This sentence does not seem to have any punctuation at the end. Consider adding a period, or changing this sentence into a clause by connecting it to another clause

  • All animals other than human have pre-defined goals and knowledge defined by nature and they can’t think more than that but, humans have a question why and to get the answer for that they think and develop, but again there are some boundaries for human also.

    Charles Darwin, in his book presented the idea that natural selection has provided the mechanism to drive evolution and organism that were suited to the certain environment are capable to produce more off springs.

    Author plz comment….

    regards,

    • , and

      It appears that you are missing a comma before the coordinating conjunction and in a compound sentence. Consider adding a comma.

      book,

      It appears that you are missing a comma or two with the interrupter in his book. Consider adding the comma(s)

      to produce → of producing

      It appears that you have used the single-word verb or the verb phrase produce with a word that is usually followed by a prepositional phrase. Consider replacing to with a preposition and changing the verb(s) into gerund(s) (-ing form).

  • The defining difference between Humans and the non-human animals is the capability of critically analysing its activities since where the animals only take actions for its immediate survival, the humans take a step further in creating needs and goals with evolved questioning abilities which however is limited to a certain extent.

    Charles Darwin has explored the idea of natural selection by his experience of animal husbandry and selective plant breeding and he has demonstrated through his books that organisms which were adaptive to the environment with higher reproduction abilities had better rates of survival with only a few instances of divergence for individual organisms.

    Author please review. Thanks a lot.

  • Charles Darwin developed the concept of human evolution, according to which, human evolution depends on two factors, on is natural selection which behaves as a filter and allows only good quality organisms to carry the process of reproduction, while sufficient time supports this whole process.

    Please review this.

    Thanks

  • Darwin purposed a scientific theory that the particular place and environment conditions plays a predominent role in breeding the offsprings, however, chance also contributes in the fate of the generations.

  • @Author, have my exam this week, kindly review asap.

    Humans are distinct from animals in way that while animals are not capable of asking questions, they just follow their pre-selected knowledge by evolution for their survival, humans have the ability to question things out of their evolution needs circle; however, some others argue that evolutionary needs do put a limit to humans as well and human mind was evolved up to the level it required for its survival.

  • All non-Human animals have many of questions in their mind in which few have no relevance and few make little sense.Human mind created goals like food,shelter or a mate but few questions like circumstances around,building a dam are out of scope.Human minds evolved by natural selection like life and death.

  • Humans unlike animals ask certain type of questions from themselves, regarding the logic behind fulfilling their natural and self defined needs, because of their evolved nature.

  • Charles Darwin has explained about the idea of natural selection in his book Origin of Species where the organisms with best traits dominantly produce offsprings successfully and are better adapted to the environment they live in than their predecessors do.

  • All non-human animals have got evolutionary designed needs through natural selection and they are incapable of asking questions whereas humans minds are evolved and are capable of asking questions and go beyond naturally defined goals.

  • Natural selection is an inherent mechanism which encourage organism to reproduce an organism having better survival qualities and traits as compared to their parent organism, in a similar way as selective plant breeding do.

  • No animal is capable of asking questions, whereas human do ask questions; some thinker believes that there are certain questions which even humans are incapable to answer because of our evolved nature.

  • The most significant difference between humans and non-human animals is a capability of making questions that go beyond the naturally defined goals; however, there are still questions that humans are incapable of answering because of the evolved nature, according to some contemporary thinkers.

  • Hello admin,
    Can you give me feedback for my overall writing pattern for summarizing. I have attempts couple of them.
    Looking forward to hear from you.
    Thanks,
    Angel

  • Hello sir
    can we mention names of books in summaries? Charles darwins books origin of species and The Descent of Man??
    Plz reply

  • Natural selection has made animals to only absorb information needed to their evolutionary needs or immediate circumstances whereas human minds evolved by natural selection establish their own goals over naturally defined goals and need information which is irrelevant to their evolutionary needs.

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