Urbanisation Essay – Investigating the Impact of Urbanisation in Today’s World

Urbanisation Essay

Urbanisation is derived from a Latin word “urb”, which means city. One of the crucial reasons to encourage Urbanisation is that, it helps people get out of poverty and pushes them towards progress. But if this process is not handled efficiently, it can lead to the growth of slums, crime and pollution. Once these issues arise, there will be barely any progress, and every effort which was put forward at the initial stage will eventually nullify.

  1. Role of Urbanisation in achieving developmental goals

Urbanisation has played a significant role in reducing poverty in countries like China, East Asia, and Latin America. Around 80% of goods and services are produced here to lower the poverty level by giving a boost to urbanisation. Jos Verbeek, the Lead economist at World Bank strongly agrees to the fact that, Urbanisation matters at every level. He also adds, the economic and social benefits of urbanisation can be leveraged only if policymakers plan strategically in terms of use of land, provide transport facilities according to population density, infrastructure and finance needed for developments.  In India, rapid urban growth has been a new phenomenon, although urban growth did take place to the end of First World War. But these efforts went worthless. In 1921-1931, urbanisation became noticeable, and rate of urban growth escalated since then. Apart from this, cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants have multiplied over the past few decades.

Urbanisation will demand planning along with the low-income urban population in developing countries for better results.  This is possible with a major shift in approach towards the core developmental areas and the support of government bodies.

  1. Positive impact of Urbanisation

  • It is a known fact that urbanisation contributes to the betterment of rural areas. People migrate to cities to get employed and earn a better salary.


  • When people move to cities or larger towns, they get access to better health, transport, and education.


  • Urbanisation encourages social integration when people work and live together by breaking traditional barriers.
  1. Causes of Urbanisation

  • Industrialization is a term which defines the change from the old agricultural economy to the non- agrarian economy. Industrialization has undoubtedly been a significant contribution to the development of countries with an increased number of employment opportunities.


  • Commercialization involves the distribution of goods and services to different territories, and trading activities are carried out productively in urban areas compared to rural areas.


  • There are numerous social benefits while living in a well-developed city. A city life offers better standards of living, sanitation, houses, healthcare and opportunities regarding career growth.


  • Employment opportunities in different industries are the main attraction for the majority of people who plan to move to a city. Several sectors give a wide range of options to pursue a career for a stable job or workable business plans.


  • Modernization is an integral part of urban life as it includes technology-savvy crowd, liberalization, sophisticated communication, the modern dress code at work, and better purchasing power. Rural communities have started accepting and implementing this reality for a better lifestyle.
  1. Effects of Urbanisation

  • It is impossible for everyone to own a house in a well-developed city due to increased property rates. Apart from this, due to high population, there is a noticeable scarcity of affordable apartments.


  • Due to overcrowding and affordability issues, people live in small spaces or far away from the workplace. Migration of people from rural areas to urban places leads to congestion in public transport, and this is a significant issue for people who commute daily.


  • Unemployment is another major issue of urban population, and it gets worst with the most professional and high demanding positions as the competition is stiff. This leads to jobless situations with the high cost of living.


  • The growth of slum areas increase due to unexpected growth of urbanisation along with unemployment, and this spreads unlawful accommodations in several parts of cities. Slums and squatters are a part of this issue which is related fast-paced city life. Elevated property rates and monthly rentals are one of the main reasons for this problem.


  • The rapid increase in population is one of the reasons for inadequate sewage facilitates and poorly managed sanitation. This becomes a more significant problem when people start suffering from harmful diseases like plague, typhoid, and diarrhoea.


  • Traffic is a major challenge faced by the people living in developed cities. The congestion and pollution caused by increased number of vehicles have been a severe problem on roads for years.


  • Crimes like kidnapping, rapes, and murder, robbery, theft and hijacking make headlines in prominent newspapers almost every day.
  1. Solutions to problems caused by urbanisation:

  • The primary motive should be planning a sustainable city and smart growth techniques with adequate safety and sound environment. The government should spread awareness to use sustainable use of urban resources and support investments in environmental campaigns, water recycling, renewable energy and pollution management.


  • Provisions to all the essential services such as health, clean water, sanitation, electricity, quality food and technology should be made possible for everyone. People should have easy access to these services. The government should provide subsidies to necessities like healthcare, education and transportation.


  • To eradicate the harmful effects of rapid urbanisation, there is a need to stimulate foreign and private investments for optimum use of natural resources to create new job opportunities. The tourism industry is one of the ways to leverage natural resources to create more job opportunities.


  • Controlling the population can resolve multiple issues in urban areas. Campaigns and counselling towards family planning can make some progress in this area.
  1. Deteriorating world of Urbanisation

Considering the current growth in population, it has been proved that urbanisation is becoming a big fail. It is getting degraded due to poor planning, inadequate investments and lack of reforms in different sectors which needs to be managed rather than just developing. Awareness towards environmental factors is also an important factor which should be ensured protection and development. Polluted air and water, improper waste disposal, insufficient water supply are a result of poor city planning and redevelopment plans.

These are few ways to get through the consequences of rapid urbanisation. Living conditions in urban areas are deteriorating due to lack of attention towards the core issues. If these loopholes are rectified with suitable solutions, then it will turn into a better world filled with opportunities and quality living conditions.


Despite all the threats of Urbanisation, it remains the best possible solution to advancement in every area. Improving human well being should be the main focus of every step taken towards urbanisation. Better management of different issues, investments from the private sector and more involvement of higher authorities can bring a positive change. Challenges are a part of the growth in every good move, but we should turn those challenges into opportunities. Last but not the least, the people living in urban areas should put constant efforts to cooperate with new development projects. This will make way for better planning for cities in future which are yet to develop so that these problems will never arise for the generations to come.

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